In woodworking, a moulding plane (molding plane in US spelling) is a specialised plane used for making the complex shapes found in wooden mouldings. 1
Traditionally, moulding planes were blocks of wear resistant hardwood, often beech or maple, which were worked to the shape of the intended moulding. The blade, or iron was likewise formed to the intended moulding profile and secured in the body of the plane with a wooden wedge. A traditional cabinetmakers shop might have many, perhaps hundreds, of moulding planes for the full range of work to be performed. The late nineteenth century brought modern types which were all-metal affairs such as the American Stanley No. 55 Universal Plane2 and the English Record No. 405 Multi-Plane with a wide variety of interchangeable cutters, integral fences, and "nickers", small cutting edges which score the grain fibers when working across the board.3
Large crown mouldings required planes of six or more inches in width, which demanded great strength to push and often had additional peg handles on the sides, allowing the craftsman's apprentice or other worker to pull the plane ahead of the master who guided it.4:132
Stanley No. 55 Universal plane with wide array of interchangeable cutters.
While generally considered outdated, a modern furniture shop doing reproduction or restoration work might keep a collection of moulding planes to match original work, or to build in an authentic manner.
The earliest known record of a moulding plane is a moulding plane iron of Roman origin unearthed in Cologne, Germany.4:116
In modern industry, the work of the moulding plane has been taken up by the electrically powered spindle moulder or wood shaper. On a smaller scale, the hand-held or table-mounted electric router allows the use of interchangeable router bits of a wide variety of profiles and is readily available to the small business or home craftsperson.
There are a variety of common moldings:
Astragal ? A semi-circular molding attached to one of a pair of especially fire doors to cover the air gap where the doors meet.
Baguette ? Thin, half-round molding, smaller than an astragal, sometimes carved, and enriched with foliages, pearls, ribbands, laurels, etc. When enriched with ornaments, it was also called chapelet.2
Bandelet ? Any little band or flat molding, which crowns a Doric architrave. It is also called a tenia (from Greek ?????? an article of clothing in the form of a ribbon.2
Baseboard, "base molding" or "skirting board" ? used to conceal the junction of an interior wall and floor, to protect the wall from impacts and to add decorative features. A "speed base" makes use of a base "cap molding" set on top of a plain 1" thick board, however there are hundreds of baseboard profiles.
Baton ? see Torus
Batten or board and batten ? a symmetrical molding that is placed across a joint where two parallel panels or boards meet
Bead molding ? narrow, half-round convex molding, when repeated forms reeding
Beading or bead ? molding in the form of a row of half spherical beads, larger than pearling
Other forms: Bead and leaf, bead and reel, bead and spindle
Beak ? Small fillet molding left on the edge of a larmier, which forms a canal, and makes a kind of pendant.2 See also: chin-beak
Bed molding ? a narrow molding used at the junction of a wall and ceiling. Bed moldings can be either sprung or plain.
Bolection ? a molding which is raised, projecting proud of the face frame. It is located at the intersection of the different surface levels between the frame and inset panel on a door or wood panel. It will sometimes have a rebate (or rabbet) at the back, the depth of the difference in levels, so that it can lay over the front of both the face frame and the inset panel and can in some instances thus give more space to nail the molding to the frame, leaving the inset panel free to expand or contract in varying climates, as timber is prone to do.
Cable molding or ropework ? Convex molding carved in imitation of a twisted rope or cord, and used for decorative moldings of the Romanesque style in England, France and Spain and adapted for 18th-century silver and furniture design (Thomas Sheraton)3
Cabled fluting or cable ? Convex circular molding sunk in the concave fluting of a classic column, and rising about one-third of the height of the shaft2
Casing ? Final trim or finished frame around the top, and both sides of a door or window opening
Cartouche (French) escutcheon ? framed panel in the form of a scroll with an inscribed centre, or surrounded by compound moldings decorated with floral motifs
Cavetto ? (Italian) cavare: "to hollow", concave, quarter-round molding sometimes employed in the place of the cymatium of a cornice, as in the Doric order of the Theatre of Marcellus. It forms the crowning feature of the Egyptian temples, and took the place of the cymatium in many of the Etruscan temples.
The apartments are flats having different sizes. For sale they are available after both studios and flats four-room. Therefore, how to perform residential stucco needs to be adapted to the size of individual rooms, their amount and how to set them furniture. However, most often the stucco housing is included in the guest rooms, kitchens and floors and ceilings corridor. To implement it may be used various elements that remained in the apartment after previously performed finishing work or repair. Plaster can also be done with new materials, purchased at the request of owners of the apartment.