The presence of a variety of sensors in turn influences that we can feel more confident behind the wheel, even in unfamiliar terrain.
Cylinder configuration Common cylinder configurations include the straight or inline configuration, the more compact V configuration, and the wider but smoother flat or boxer configuration.Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial configuration, which allows more effective cooling.
More unusual configurations such as the H, U, X, and W have also been used. Multiple cylinder engines have their valve train and crankshaft configured so that pistons are at different parts of their cycle.
It is desirable to have the piston's cycles uniformly spaced (this is called even firing) especially in forced induction engines; this reduces torque pulsations21 and makes inline engines with more than 3 cylinders statically balanced in its primary forces.However, some engine configurations require odd firing to achieve better balance than what is possible with even firing. For instance, a 4-stroke I2 engine has better balance when the angle between the crankpins is 180° because the pistons move in opposite directions and inertial forces partially cancel, but this gives an odd firing pattern where one cylinder fires 180° of crankshaft rotation after the other, then no cylinder fires for 540°.With an even firing pattern the pistons would move in unison and the associated forces would add. Multiple crankshaft configurations do not necessarily need a cylinder head at all because they can instead have a piston at each end of the cylinder called an opposed piston design.Because fuel inlets and outlets are positioned at opposed ends of the cylinder, one can achieve uniflow scavenging, which, as in the four-stroke engine is efficient over a wide range of engine speeds.Thermal efficiency is improved because of a lack of cylinder heads.This design was used in the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine, using two crankshafts at either end of a single bank of cylinders, and most remarkably in the Napier Deltic diesel engines. These used three crankshafts to serve three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangle with the crankshafts at the corners. It was also used in single-bank locomotive engines, and is still used in marine propulsion engines and marine auxiliary generators.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine
Intake, induction or suction: The intake valves are open as a result of the cam lobe pressing down on the valve stem.The piston moves downward increasing the volume of the combustion chamber and allowing air to enter in the case of a CI engine or an air fuel mix in the case of SI engines that do not use direct injection.
The air or air-fuel mixture is called the charge in any case. Compression: In this stroke, both valves are closed and the piston moves upward reducing the combustion chamber volume which reaches its minimum when the piston is at TDC.The piston performs work on the charge as it is being compressed; as a result its pressure, temperature and density increase; an approximation to this behavior is provided by the ideal gas law. Just before the piston reaches TDC, ignition begins.
In the case of a SI engine, the spark plug receives a high voltage pulse that generates the spark which gives it its name and ignites the charge.In the case of a CI engine the fuel injector quickly injects fuel into the combustion chamber as a spray; the fuel ignites due to the high temperature. Power or working stroke: The pressure of the combustion gases pushes the piston downward, generating more work than it required to compress the charge.
Complementary to the compression stroke, the combustion gases expand and as a result their temperature, pressure and density decreases.When the piston is near to BDC the exhaust valve opens.
The combustion gases expand irreversibly due to the leftover pressure?in excess of back pressure, the gauge pressure on the exhaust port?; this is called the blowdown. Exhaust: The exhaust valve remains open while the piston moves upward expelling the combustion gases.For naturally aspirated engines a small part of the combustion gases may remain in the cylinder during normal operation because the piston does not close the combustion chamber completely; these gases dissolve in the next charge.
At the end of this stroke, the exhaust valve closes, the intake valve opens, and the sequence repeats in the next cycle.The intake valve may open before the exhaust valve closes to allow better scavenging. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine.